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This paper traces the roots of modern American conspicuous consumption and offers an explanation as to the underlying motive driving this unique consumption behavior. Further, it analyzes marketing's response to conspicuous consumption in both affluent and post-affluent societies.
The desire to conspicuously consume dates back to tribal times when men possessed women and slaves as trophies of their status Vablen Since that time, although the players and what is consumed have changed, the game of ostentatious ownership has remained essentially the same, with the winners being awarded status, prestige and honor.
Early in the game, only the aristocratic elite could play. Yet as societies became industrialized, players of achieved Difference between service marketing and goods, or the nouveau rich, followed by those of moderate and even negligible success entered the game.
Some argue that flagrant consumptive behavior is the unfortunate result of capitalism VeblenMarx GalbraithToynbeeStanfield and Stanfieldwhile others note that material ownership helps us to define who we are GoffmanBelkSolomonMcCrackenLevy McCracken notes that "conspicuous and competitive consumption are especially important to the study of the history of consumption because they play such an important role in the growth of a consumer society' p.
Further, he suggests that by studying overt displays of wealth both between and within social groups, we may better understand what has propelled Western societies headlong into their present preoccupation with material possessions. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how modern American conspicuous consumption has developed through time and over societies.
First, three theories of conspicuous consumption are briefly reviewed. Then, a periodization scheme is used to explain and compare traditional, achieving, affluent Mason and post-affluent societies as they relate to conspicuous consumption.
Finally, an analysis of marketing's response to conspicuous consumption along with discussion of some more recent explanations of this unique consumption behavior are incorporated in this presentation. The earliest of which was put forth by Thorstein Veblen in his book The Theory of the Leisure Class, first published in According to Veblenthe strength of one's reputation is in direct relationship to the amount of money possessed and displayed; i.
He theorizes that "pecuniary strength" confers not only "invidious distinction', but also honor, prestige, and esteem within the community.
To Veblen, lavish spending was "symptomatic of the superfluous life-style of the rich. Wearing diamond-studded jewelry and overindulging in luxurious foods and alcohol Above all, as Veblen notes, the objects of conspicuous consumption must be wasteful, or possess no useful value, in order to reflect credibly on one's reputationpp.
Modernized Vablen's work, Duesenberry developed his own theory which he labeled the "demonstration" or 'bandwagon' effect. In essence, this effect is an attempt to "keep up with the Joneses" in order to preserve one's self-esteem McCormick A reverse theory of the bandwagon effect, also expressive of modern day consumptive behavior, is the 'snob" effect Mason, This theory states that people preoccupied with social status reject products that are perceived to be possessed by the common populace.
Thus, the 'snob" consumer seeks to purchase products which have limited availability. This type of exclusive consumption guarantees a measure of social prestige Masonp.
Combined, the Veblen, bandwagon and snob effects offer a skeletal picture of how conspicuous consumption has moved from the extremes of being an exclusive "invidious distinction' behavior Veblenp.
Between these extremes, various other schoiars have offered insights on buyer motivation to consume, further shedding light on conspicuous consumption behavior. Galbraithfor example, agrees with Veblen that people behave ostentatiously to achieve status recognition, but attempts to bring Veblen's theory up-to-date.
Specifically, he states that 'simple forthright display is now out of fashion and is often referred to as vulgar; required instead is a showing of what may be called obtrusive good taste.
That, unlike the conspicuous consumption of earlier times, requires a certain measure of artistic and even intellectual effort'p. Likewise, Marx, while espousing social motivations to conspicuously consume, explains such behavior is the result of "commodity fetishism' whereby goods are erroneously believed to possess prestige value and hence confer respect, authority, and deference to those who acquire such objects of status Marx Other explanations offering insights as to why people behave pretentiously include: In addition to highlighting various social reasons driving conspicuous consumption behavior, it should also be noted that there are those scholars who believe that social factors have nothing to do with such behavior.
Instead they propose that personality or innate human desires drive such displays.
Marshallfor example, theorized that the desire to conspicuously consume comes with us from the cradle and never leaves us till we go the grave ".Products and services are two closely aligned concepts, and, in fact, most products have an element of service in them.
For example, a car buyer now buys a comprehensive bundle of service benefits, in addition to the tangible components of the car vetconnexx.comr, there is a distinct difference between them and it is important to establish some working definitions.
As you can see, developing and marketing a service requires a different approach. Keep in mind that a service is intangible and that the service delivery is all about the people, including the customer who is often part of the service delivery process.
Societal marketing concept questions whether the pure marketing concept overlooks possible conflicts between consumer short-run wants and consumer long-run welfare.. The societal marketing concept holds “marketing strategy should deliver value to customers in a way that maintains or improves both the consumer’s and society’s well-being”.
Key difference: B2B and B2C are e-commerce business strategies.B2B is meant for Business-to-Business, wherein the business transaction takes place between businesses and B2C is meant for Business-to-Consumer, where the transactions of products take place between the .
Services marketing is a specialised branch of marketing. Services marketing emerged as a separate field of study in the early s, following the recognition that the unique characteristics of services required different strategies compared with the marketing of physical goods.. Services marketing typically refers to both business to consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) services, and.
Meaning, Measure, and Morality of Materialism, Pages A HISTORY OF CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION. Christine Page, Department of Marketing, University of Colorado.
ABSTRACT - Conspicuous consumption refers to the ostentatious display of wealth for the purpose of acquiring or maintaining status or prestige.